Vegetable farmers in Benin find it hard to obtain bank loans to purchase seeds and fertilizers or to finance farm operations. If they do find a lender, interest rates can be as high as 34% per year. Women farmers find it particularly difficult, for various reasons. They lack land titles that could be used as collateral. They are generally less educated than men, less connected to markets, and less likely to be members of an association or cooperative. As a consequence, women tend to be shut out of the formal credit system, leaving them unable to upgrade production methods, invest in new technologies or expand their market networks.